Congenital Heart Disease

Fetal Circulation
Through the blood vessels in the umbilical cord, the fetus receives all the necessary nutrition, oxygen, and life support from the mother through the placenta.
Factors Contributing to Congenital Heart Disease
In up to 90 percent of cases of congenital heart defect, the cause is thought to be a combination of genetics and environment.
Congenital Heart Disease
Heart problems are the most common kind of birth defects. While children with some heart defects can be monitored by a doctor and treated with medicine, others will need to have surgery.

Genetic Disorders

Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21)
Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that includes a combination of birth defects, including some degree of mental retardation, characteristic facial features and, often, heart defects.
Marfan Syndrome
Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder involving the body's connective tissue, including the heart, lungs, and spinal cord.
22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome
22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a genetic disorder marked by hypoparathyroidism, certain heart defects, and a cleft lip or palate.

Heart Defects

Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)
An atrial septal defect is an opening in the dividing wall between the two upper chambers of the heart known as the right and left atria.
Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
A ventricular septal defect is an opening in the dividing wall between the two lower chambers of the heart known as the right and left ventricles.
Atrioventricular Canal (AV Canal or AVC)
AV canal is a complex heart problem that involves several abnormalities of structures inside the heart.
Tricuspid Atresia (TA)
In tricuspid atresia, the tricuspid valve, normally located between the right atrium and the right ventricle, does not develop properly.
Pulmonary Atresia (PA)
PA is a serious heart defect in which the pulmonary valve does not allow blood to flow from the heart to the lungs to pick up oxygen.
Transposition of the Great Arteries (TGA)
Because of abnormal development of the fetal heart, the large vessels that take blood away from the heart to the lungs, or to the body, are improperly connected.
Tetralogy of Fallot
Tetralogy of Fallot is a complex condition of several congenital heart defects.
Coarctation of the Aorta
Coarctation of the aorta refers to a narrowing of the aorta that restricts the amount of oxygen-rich blood that can travel to the lower part of the body.
Aortic Stenosis
Aortic stenosis affects the amount of blood that can flow from the left ventricle to the aorta. Symptoms vary with the degree of blockage.
Pulmonary Stenosis
Pulmonary stenosis affects the leaflets of the pulmonary valve, making it difficult for blood to flow from the right ventricle to the lungs.
Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)
PDA is a heart problem in which the connection between the aorta and pulmonary artery remains open after birth, instead of closing as it should.

Complex Heart Problems

Truncus Arteriosus
Truncus arteriosus occurs when the aorta and the pulmonary artery fail to separate completely during fetal development.
Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return
In this condition, the four pulmonary veins are connected somewhere besides the left atrium.
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome is a combination of several abnormalities of the heart and great blood vessels.
Anomalous Coronary Artery (ACA)
An anomalous coronary artery is a coronary artery that has an abnormality or malformation.

Living With Congenital Heart Disease

Growth and Development in Children with Congenital Heart Disease
Children with congenital heart disease often grow and develop more slowly than other children.
Emotional and Family Issues in Children with Heart Disease
A child's emotions can be affected by the way his/her family members cope with the illness, as well as other issues including the stress felt by the family.

Related Problems

Rheumatic Heart Disease in Children
Rheumatic heart disease is a condition in which permanent damage to heart valves is caused by rheumatic fever.
Cardiomyopathy and Your Child
Cardiomyopathy is any disease of the heart muscle in which the heart loses its ability to pump blood effectively.
Bacterial Endocarditis
Bacterial endocarditis is an infection of the lining of the heart. This infection can occur in anyone who has congenital heart disease.
Eisenmenger's Syndrome
Eisenmenger’s syndrome primarily affects adolescents and adults with congenital heart defects that were repaired after their first birthday or that were never repaired.
Pericarditis in Children
Pericarditis is inflammation or infection of the pericardium, the thin sac that surrounds the heart.
Kawasaki Disease
The main threat from Kawasaki disease comes from its effect on the heart and blood vessels.